Englisch betrifft uns 2| // After the Brexit Referendum //. Ute Ritzenhofen. What Next for Scotland? Schottland nach der Brexit-Entscheidung. (Sekundarstufe. Knackpunkt Brexit. Sturgeon argumentiert, dass sich der Status Schottlands durch den Brexit geändert habe. Im Jahr votierten die Schotten. Local results for areas beginning with A in the EU Referendum from BBC News.
Scots against second independence referendum despite Brexit vote: pollNicola Sturgeon, Chefin der Scottish National Party (SNP) hält am Im Streit um ein neues Unabhängigkeitsreferendum in Schottland sind. Englisch betrifft uns 2| // After the Brexit Referendum //. Ute Ritzenhofen. What Next for Scotland? Schottland nach der Brexit-Entscheidung. (Sekundarstufe. A still image from video showS Scotland's First Minister Nicola Sturgeon speaking following the results of the EU referendum, in Edinburgh, Scotland, Britain.
Scotland Referendum Brexit Independence referendum VideoShould there be another Scottish referendum? - Question Time - BBC
The UK first applied to join them in , but this was vetoed by France. Prior to the general election , the then Leader of the Conservative Party and Leader of the Opposition David Cameron promised a referendum on the Lisbon Treaty ,  which he backtracked on after all EU countries had ratified the treaty before the election.
Regarding the ability of the bill to bind the UK Government in the —20 Parliament which indirectly, as a result of the referendum itself, proved to last only two years to holding such a referendum, a parliamentary research paper noted that:.
The Bill simply provides for a referendum on continued EU membership by the end of December and does not otherwise specify the timing, other than requiring the Secretary of State to bring forward orders by the end of The bill received its Second Reading on 5 July , passing by votes to none after almost all Labour MPs and all Liberal Democrat MPs abstained, cleared the Commons in November , and was then introduced to the House of Lords in December , where members voted to block the bill.
At the European Parliament election in , the UK Independence Party UKIP secured more votes and more seats than any other party, the first time a party other than the Conservatives or Labour had topped a nationwide poll in years, leaving the Conservatives in third place.
Under Ed Miliband 's leadership between and , the Labour Party ruled out an in-out referendum unless and until a further transfer of powers from the UK to the EU were to be proposed.
When the Conservative Party won a majority of seats in the House of Commons at the general election, Cameron reiterated his party's manifesto commitment to hold an in-out referendum on UK membership of the EU by the end of , but only after "negotiating a new settlement for Britain in the EU".
In early , David Cameron outlined the changes he aimed to bring about in the EU and in the UK's relationship with it. In November that year, Cameron gave an update on the negotiations and further details of his aims.
The outcome of the renegotiations was announced in February The significance of the changes to the EU-UK agreement was contested and speculated upon, with none of the changes considered fundamental, but some considered important to many British people.
The EU had reportedly offered David Cameron a so-called "emergency brake", which would have allowed the UK to withhold social benefits to new immigrants for the first four years after they arrived; this brake could have been applied for a period of seven years.
Cameron claimed that "he could have avoided Brexit had European leaders let him control migration", according to the Financial Times.
Merkel stated in the German Parliament: "If you wish to have free access to the single market then you have to accept the fundamental European rights as well as obligations that come from it.
This is as true for Great Britain as for anybody else. The planned referendum was included in the Queen's Speech on 27 May It extended to include and take legislative effect in Gibraltar ,   and received royal assent on 17 December The Act was, in turn, confirmed, enacted and implemented in Gibraltar by the European Union Referendum Act Gibraltar ,  which was passed by the Gibraltar Parliament and entered into law upon receiving the assent of the Governor of Gibraltar on 28 January It did not contain any requirement for the UK Government to implement the results of the referendum.
Instead, it was designed to gauge the electorate's opinion on EU membership. The referendums held in Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland in and are examples of this type, where opinion was tested before legislation was introduced.
The UK does not have constitutional provisions which would require the results of a referendum to be implemented , unlike, for example, the Republic of Ireland , where the circumstances in which a binding referendum should be held are set out in its constitution.
In contrast, the legislation that provided for the referendum held on AV in May would have implemented the new system of voting without further legislation, provided that the boundary changes also provided for in the Parliamentary Voting System and Constituencies Act were also implemented.
In the event, there was a substantial majority against any change. The referendum was held after the re-negotiated terms of the UK's EC membership had been agreed by all EC Member States, and the terms set out in a command paper and agreed by both Houses.
Research by the Electoral Commission confirmed that its recommended question "was clear and straightforward for voters, and was the most neutral wording from the range of options Prior to being officially announced, it was widely speculated that a June date for the referendum was a serious possibility.
The First Ministers of Northern Ireland, Scotland, and Wales co-signed a letter to Cameron asking him not to hold the referendum in June, as devolved elections were scheduled to take place the previous month.
These elections had been postponed for a year to avoid a clash with the general election, after Westminster had implemented the Fixed-term Parliament Act.
Cameron refused this request, saying people were able to make up their own minds in multiple elections spaced a short time from each other. In February , Cameron announced that the UK Government would formally recommend to the British people that the UK should remain a member of a reformed European Union and that the referendum would be held on 23 June, marking the official launch of the campaign.
He also announced that Parliament would enact secondary legislation on 22 February relating to the European Union Referendum Act With the official launch, ministers of the UK Government were then free to campaign on either side of the argument in a rare exception to Cabinet collective responsibility.
The right to vote in the referendum in the United Kingdom is defined by the legislation as limited to residents of the United Kingdom who were either also Commonwealth citizens under the British Nationality Act which include British citizens and other British nationals , or those who were also citizens of the Republic of Ireland , or both.
Members of the House of Lords , who could not vote in general elections, were able to vote in the referendum. The electorate of 46,, represented Residents of the United Kingdom who were citizens of other EU countries were not allowed to vote unless they were citizens or were also citizens of the Republic of Ireland, of Malta , or of the Republic of Cyprus.
The Representation of the People Acts c. Each polling station was specified to have no more than 2, registered voters. The minimum age for voters in the referendum was set to 18 years, in line with the Representation of the People Act, as amended.
A House of Lords amendment proposing to lower the minimum age to 16 years was rejected. The deadline to register to vote was initially midnight on 7 June ; however, this was extended by 48 hours owing to technical problems with the official registration website on 7 June, caused by unusually high web traffic.
Some supporters of the Leave campaign, including the Conservative MP Sir Gerald Howarth , criticised the government's decision to extend the deadline, alleging it gave Remain an advantage because many late registrants were young people who were considered to be more likely to vote for Remain.
Nottingham City Council emailed a Vote Leave supporter to say that the council was unable to check whether the nationality that people stated on their voting registration form was true, and hence that they simply had to assume that the information that was submitted was, indeed, correct.
Kingston upon Thames London Borough Council and the Electoral Commission stated that Jakub Pawlowski, a Polish voter in Kingston upon Thames declared himself as being British on his registration form, and hence, received a referendum polling card in the post, although he is not a UK citizen and did not have the right to receive such a polling card.
The voter stated that he specified that he was a Polish citizen when registering on the electoral roll,  but still had received the card in the post.
Xpress was initially unable to confirm the exact number of those affected. The matter was resolved by the issuance of a software patch which rendered the wrongly recorded electors ineligible to vote on 23 June.
Residents of the Crown Dependencies which are not part of the United Kingdom , namely the Isle of Man and the Bailiwicks of Jersey and Guernsey , even if they were British citizens, were excluded from the referendum unless they were also previous residents of the United Kingdom that is: England and Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland.
Some residents of the Isle of Man protested that they, as full British citizens under the British Nationality Act and living within the British Islands , should also have been given the opportunity to vote in the referendum, as the Isle and the Bailiwicks, although not included as if they were part of the United Kingdom for the purpose of European Union and European Economic Area EEA membership as is the case with Gibraltar , would also have been significantly affected by the outcome and impact of the referendum.
In January , Nigel Farage and the Leave. EU campaign became part of the Grassroots Out movement, which was borne out of infighting between Vote Leave and Leave.
EU campaigners. The UK Government's official position was to support the Remain campaign. Nevertheless, Cameron announced that Conservative Ministers and MPs were free to campaign in favour of remaining in the EU or leaving it, according to their conscience.
This decision came after mounting pressure for a free vote for ministers. In the week beginning on 16 May, the Electoral Commission sent a voting guide regarding the referendum to every household within the UK and Gibraltar to raise awareness of the upcoming referendum.
The eight-page guide contained details on how to vote, as well as a sample of the actual ballot paper, and a whole page each was given to the campaign groups Britain Stronger in Europe and Vote Leave to present their case.
The Vote Leave campaign argued that if the UK left the EU, national sovereignty would be protected, immigration controls could be imposed, and the UK would be able to sign trade deals with the rest of the world.
The UK would also be able to stop membership payments to the EU every week. The Cabinet of the United Kingdom is a body responsible for making decisions on policy and organising governmental departments ; it is chaired by the Prime Minister and contains most of the government's ministerial heads.
Various UK multinationals have stated that they would not like the UK to leave the EU because of the uncertainty it would cause, such as Shell ,  BT  and Vodafone ,  with some assessing the pros and cons of Britain exiting.
Many UK-based businesses, including Sainsbury's , remained steadfastly neutral, concerned that taking sides in the divisive issue could lead to a backlash from customers.
In the week following conclusion of the UK's renegotiation and especially after Boris Johnson announced that he would support the UK leaving , the pound fell to a seven-year low against the dollar and economists at HSBC warned that it could drop even more.
European banking analysts also cited Brexit concerns as the reason for the Euro's decline. Uncertainty over the referendum result, together with several other factors—US interest rates rising, low commodity prices, low Eurozone growth and concerns over emerging markets such as China—contributed to a high level of stock market volatility in January and February However, when the result for Sunderland was announced, it indicated an unexpected swing to 'Leave'.
It recovered to The Associated Press called the sudden worldwide stock market decline a stock market crash.
The referendum was generally well-accepted by European far right. Marine Le Pen , the leader of the French Front national , described the possibility of a Brexit as "like the fall of the Berlin Wall " and commented that "Brexit would be marvellous — extraordinary — for all European peoples who long for freedom".
Dutch politician Geert Wilders , leader of the Party for Freedom , said that the Netherlands should follow Britain's example: "Like in the s, once again Britain could help liberate Europe from another totalitarian monster, this time called 'Brussels'.
Again, we could be saved by the British. Swedish foreign minister Margot Wallström said on 11 June that if Britain left the EU, other countries would have referendums on whether to leave the EU, and that if Britain stayed in the EU, other countries would negotiate, ask and demand to have special treatment.
Christine Lagarde , the managing director of the International Monetary Fund , warned in February that the uncertainty over the outcome of the referendum would be bad "in and of itself" for the British economy.
In October , United States Trade Representative Michael Froman declared that the United States was not keen on pursuing a separate free-trade agreement FTA with Britain if it were to leave the EU, thus, according to The Guardian newspaper, undermining a key economic argument of proponents of those who say Britain would prosper on its own and be able to secure bilateral FTAs with trading partners.
Obama said: "Having the UK in the EU gives us much greater confidence about the strength of the transatlantic union, and is part of the cornerstone of the institutions built after World War II that has made the world safer and more prosperous.
We want to make sure that the United Kingdom continues to have that influence. President Barack Obama of interfering in the Brexit vote,   with Boris Johnson calling the intervention a "piece of outrageous and exorbitant hypocrisy"  and UKIP leader Nigel Farage accusing him of "monstrous interference", saying "You wouldn't expect the British Prime Minister to intervene in your presidential election, you wouldn't expect the Prime Minister to endorse one candidate or another.
Prior to the vote, Republican presidential candidate Donald Trump anticipated that Britain would leave based on its concerns over migration,  while Democratic presidential candidate Hillary Clinton hoped that Britain would remain in the EU to strengthen transatlantic co-operation.
In October , Chinese President Xi Jinping declared his support for Britain remaining in the EU, saying "China hopes to see a prosperous Europe and a united EU, and hopes Britain, as an important member of the EU, can play an even more positive and constructive role in promoting the deepening development of China-EU ties".
Chinese diplomats have stated "off the record" that the People's Republic sees the EU as a counterbalance to American economic power, and that an EU without Britain would mean a stronger United States.
In February , the finance ministers from the G20 major economies warned for the UK to leave the EU would lead to "a shock" in the global economy. In May , the Australian Prime Minister Malcolm Turnbull said that Australia would prefer the UK to remain in the EU, but that it was a matter for the British people, and "whatever judgment they make, the relations between Britain and Australia will be very, very close".
Indonesian president Joko Widodo stated during a European trip that he was not in favour of Brexit. Sri Lankan Prime Minister Ranil Wickremesinghe issued a statement of reasons why he was "very concerned" at the possibility of Brexit.
Russian President Vladimir Putin said: "I want to say it is none of our business, it is the business of the people of the UK.
We are not involved in this process in any way. We don't have any interest in it. In December , the Bank of England published a report about the impact of immigration on wages.
The report concluded that immigration put downward pressure on workers' wages, particularly low-skilled workers: a 10 percent point rise in the proportion of migrants working in low-skilled services drove down the average wages of low-skilled workers by about 2 percent.
From the German viewpoint, the existence of the liberal bloc allows Germany to play-off free-market Britain against dirigiste France, and that if Britain were to leave, the liberal bloc would be severely weakened, thereby allowing the French to take the EU into a much more dirigiste direction that would be unattractive from the standpoint of Berlin.
World Pensions Forum director M. Nicolas J. Firzli has argued that the Brexit debate should be viewed within the broader context of economic analysis of EU law and regulation in relation to English common law , arguing: "Every year, the British Parliament is forced to pass tens of new statutes reflecting the latest EU directives coming from Brussels — a highly undemocratic process known as ' transposition ' Slowly but surely, these new laws dictated by EU commissars are conquering English common law, imposing upon UK businesses and citizens an ever-growing collection of fastidious regulations in every field".
Thiemo Fetzer, professor of Economics from University of Warwick , analyzed the welfare reforms in the UK since and suggests that numerous austerity-induced welfare reforms from onwards have stopped contributing to mitigate income differences through transfer payments.
This could be a key activating factor of anti-EU preferences that lie behind the development of economic grievances and the lack of support in a Remain victory.
Michael Jacobs, the current director of the Commission on Economic Justice at the Institute for Public Policy Research and Mariana Mazzucato, a professor in University College London in Economics of Innovation and Public Value have found that the Brexit campaign had the tendency to blame external forces for domestic economic problems and have argued that the problems within the economy wasn't due to 'unstoppable forces of globalisation' but rather the result of active political and business decisions.
Instead, they claim that orthodox economic theory has guided poor economic policy such as investment and that has been the cause of problems within the British economy.
The head of the IFS, Paul Johnson, said that the UK "could perfectly reasonably decide that we are willing to pay a bit of a price for leaving the EU and regaining some sovereignty and control over immigration and so on.
That there would be some price though, I think is now almost beyond doubt. During a Treasury Committee shortly following the vote, economic experts generally agreed that the leave vote would be detrimental to the UK economy.
Michael Dougan , Professor of European Law and Jean Monnet Chair in EU Law at the University of Liverpool and a constitutional lawyer, described the Leave campaign as "one of the most dishonest political campaigns this country [the UK] has ever seen", for using arguments based on constitutional law that he said were readily demonstrable as false.
In particular, eight out of 10 respondents felt that leaving the EU would have a negative impact on trusts' ability to recruit health and social care staff.
Guidelines by the Charity Commission for England and Wales that forbid political activity for registered charities have limited UK health organizations' commentary on EU poll, according to anonymous sources consulted by the Lancet.
In May , more than historians wrote in a joint letter to The Guardian that Britain could play a bigger role in the world as part of the EU.
They said: "As historians of Britain and of Europe, we believe that Britain has had in the past, and will have in the future, an irreplaceable role to play in Europe.
Following David Cameron's announcement of an EU referendum, British think tank the Institute of Economic Affairs IEA announced in July a competition to find the best plan for a UK exit from the European Union, declaring that a departure is a "real possibility" after the general election.
Analysis of polling suggested that young voters tended to support remaining in the EU, whereas those older tend to support leaving, but there was no gender split in attitudes.
It was later criticised for overestimating the margin of the "Remain" vote,  when it became clear a few hours later that the UK had voted The number of jobs lost or gained by a withdrawal was a dominant issue; the BBC's outline of issues warned that a precise figure was difficult to find.
The Leave campaign argued that a reduction in red tape associated with EU regulations would create more jobs and that small to medium-sized companies who trade domestically would be the biggest beneficiaries.
Those arguing to remain in the EU, claimed that millions of jobs would be lost. The EU's importance as a trading partner and the outcome of its trade status if it left was a disputed issue.
Whereas those wanting to stay cited that most of the UK's trade was made with the EU, those arguing to leave say that its trade was not as important as it used to be.
Scenarios of the economic outlook for the country if it left the EU were generally negative. The United Kingdom also paid more into the EU budget than it received.
Citizens of EU countries, including the United Kingdom, have the right to travel, live and work within other EU countries, as free movement is one of the four founding principles of the EU.
After the announcement had been made as to the outcome of the referendum, Rowena Mason, political correspondent for The Guardian offered the following assessment: "Polling suggests discontent with the scale of migration to the UK has been the biggest factor pushing Britons to vote out, with the contest turning into a referendum on whether people are happy to accept free movement in return for free trade.
The EU had offered David Cameron a so-called "emergency brake" which would have allowed the UK to withhold social benefits to new immigrants for the first four years after they arrived; this brake could have been applied for a period of seven years.
The possibility that the UK's smaller constituent countries could vote to remain within the EU but find themselves withdrawn from the EU led to discussion about the risk to the unity of the United Kingdom.
The UK cannot possibly continue in its present form if England votes to leave and everyone else votes to stay".
The scheduled debates and question sessions included a number of question and answer sessions with various campaigners. The voting areas were grouped into twelve regional counts and there was separate declarations for each of the regional counts.
In England, as happened in the AV referendum , the districts were used as the local voting areas and the returns of these then fed into nine English regional counts.
In Scotland the local voting areas were the 32 local councils which then fed their results into the Scottish national count, and in Wales the 22 local councils were their local voting areas before the results were then fed into the Welsh national count.
Northern Ireland, as was the case in the AV referendum, was a single voting and national count area although local totals by Westminster parliamentary constituency areas were announced.
Gibraltar was a single voting area, but as Gibraltar was to be treated and included as if it were a part of South West England, its results was included together with the South West England regional count.
The following table shows the breakdown of the voting areas and regional counts that were used for the referendum. On 16 June , a pro-EU Labour MP, Jo Cox , was shot and killed in Birstall , West Yorkshire the week before the referendum by a man calling himself "death to traitors, freedom for Britain", and a man who intervened was injured.
EU had continued to put out advertising the day after Jo Cox's murder. On polling day itself two polling stations in Kingston upon Thames were flooded by rain and had to be relocated.
Although this was widely dismissed as a conspiracy theory, some Leave campaigners advocated that voters should instead use pens to mark their ballot papers.
On polling day in Winchester an emergency call was made to police about "threatening behaviour" outside the polling station.
After questioning a woman who had been offering to lend her pen to voters, the police decided that no offence was being committed.
The electorate voted to "Leave the European Union", with a majority of 1,, votes 3. Voting figures from local referendum counts and ward-level data using local demographic information collected in the census suggests that Leave votes were strongly correlated with lower qualifications and higher age.
Researchers based at the University of Warwick found that areas with "deprivation in terms of education, income and employment were more likely to vote Leave".
The Leave vote tended to be greater in areas which had lower incomes and high unemployment, a strong tradition of manufacturing employment, and in which the population had fewer qualifications.
The main reason people voted Remain was that "the risks of voting to leave the EU looked too great when it came to things like the economy, jobs and prices".
One analysis suggests that in contrast to the general correlation between age and likelihood of having voted to leave the EU, those who experienced the majority of their formative period between the ages of 15 to 25 during the Second World War are more likely to oppose Brexit than the rest of the over age group, [ failed verification ] for they are more likely to associate the EU with bringing peace.
EU referendum vote by age and education, based on a YouGov survey. EU referendum leave vote versus educational attainment Highest level of qualification for Level 4 qualifications and above by area for England and Wales.
The referendum was criticised for not granting people younger than 18 years of age a vote. Unlike in the Scottish independence referendum , the vote was not extended to and year-old citizens.
Critics argued that these people would live with the consequences of the referendum for longer than those who were able to vote.
Some supporters for the inclusion of these young citizens considered this exclusion a violation of democratic principles and a major shortcoming of the referendum.
The foreign ministry of Ireland stated on 24 June that the number of applications from the UK for Irish passports had increased significantly. There were more than a hundred reports of racist abuse and hate crime in the immediate aftermath of the referendum, with many citing the plan to leave the European Union.
In the UK, crimes are recorded as hate crimes based on the perception of the victim. No more Polish vermin". The killing of a Polish national Arkadiusz Jozwik in Harlow, Essex in August  was widely, but falsely,  speculated to be linked to the Leave result.
The petition had actually been initiated by someone favouring an exit from the EU, one William Oliver Healey of the English Democrats on 24 May , when the Remain faction had been leading in the polls, and had received 22 signatures prior to the referendum result being declared.
Healey also claimed that the petition had been "hijacked by the remain campaign". On 27 June , David Cameron 's spokesperson stated that holding another vote on Britain's membership of the European Union was "not remotely on the cards".
There must be no attempts to remain inside the EU Brexit means Brexit. Its response said that the referendum vote "must be respected" and that the government "must now prepare for the process to exit the EU".
On 24 June, the Conservative Party leader and Prime Minister David Cameron announced that he would resign by October because the Leave campaign had been successful in the referendum.
The leadership election was scheduled for 9 September. The new leader would be in place before the autumn conference set to begin on 2 October.
The Labour Party leader Jeremy Corbyn faced growing criticism from his party, which had supported remaining within the EU, for poor campaigning.
This led to a string of Labour MPs quickly resigning their roles in the party. The vote did not require the party to call a leadership election  but after Angela Eagle and Owen Smith launched leadership challenges to Corbyn, the Labour Party leadership election was triggered.
Corbyn won the contest, with a larger share of the vote than in But the Brexit saga has pushed even more over the edge.
That has renewed calls for Scotland to try to break free of England, rejoin the EU, and follow its own north star, with a worldview a lot closer to Brussels than to London.
Polls throughout have shown a sustained but narrow majority for independence and the SNP on track to win another landslide in Scottish elections next year.
It has changed how Scotland is perceived overseas. The four-year Brexit drama has changed the international perception of Scotland. If formerly seen as a leaver—and the last independence bid, in , provoked open hostility from everybody from Barack Obama in the United States to Vladimir Putin in Russia—Scotland is now seen as a joiner.
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Retrieved 28 June Scots eye post-Brexit EU options". Retrieved 4 July Retrieved 29 June Happy to discuss w. NicolaSturgeon next time she's in Bxl.
EUref" Tweet — via Twitter. However, even the former Prime Minister admitted he had made a huge mistake with the legislation. If we had not devolved power, then there would have been a massive demand for separation — as there was back in the Sixties and Seventies.
The Bill would only come into force if approved by a referendum with a majority of votes cast in the UK as a whole at 65 percent and on a majority in each of England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland.
Brexit: Heath 'carefully masked' EU expansion says Salisbury. However, there might be a solution.On polling day in Winchester an emergency call was made to police about "threatening behaviour" outside the polling station. It would:. This is as true for Great Britain as for anybody else. EU Notification of Withdrawal Act. Casino On Net 16 Junea pro-EU Labour MP, Jo Coxwas shot and killed in Dating Portal TestWest Yorkshire the week before the referendum by a man calling himself "death to traitors, freedom for Britain", and a man who intervened was injured. Retrieved 14 January Retrieved 24 November Scotland Referendum Brexit has argued that the Brexit debate should be viewed within the broader context of Gametwst analysis of Schnelles Vatertagsgeschenk law and regulation Bubble Bubble Spiel relation to English common lawarguing: "Every year, the British Parliament is forced to pass tens of new statutes reflecting the latest EU directives coming from Brussels — a highly undemocratic process known as ' transposition ' The report concluded that immigration put downward pressure on workers' wages, particularly low-skilled workers: a 10 percent point rise in the proportion of migrants working in low-skilled services drove down the average wages of low-skilled workers by about 2 percent. Parliament of the United Kingdom. Do you respect the will of the Scottish people or not? Northern Ireland, as was the case in Kostenlose Offline Spiele AV referendum, was a single voting and national count area although local totals by Westminster parliamentary constituency areas were announced. Economic PolicyVolume 32, Issue 92, 1 Octoberpp. Ipsos MORI.